LEVER Publications

LEVER faculty and supported students have been highly active in publishing high impact journal papers, technical reports, and conferences. For more reading, view our exhaustive list of LEV publications.


Jones, L.R., C. Bennett, J.H. MacArthur, C.R. Cherry (2024) Consumer Purchase Response to E-bike Incentives: Results from Nationwide Stated Preference Study. Transportation Research Part D.

Ssi Yan Kai, N., Haworth, N., & Schramm, A. (2024). Understanding nonuse of mandatory e-scooter helmets. Traffic Injury Prevention, 1–8.


Shah, N. A. Ziedan, C. Brakewood, C. Cherry (2023) Shared E-Scooter Service Providers with Large Fleet Size Have a Competitive Advantage: Findings From E-Scooter Demand and Supply Analysis of Nashville, Tennessee. Transportation Research Part A. 178, 103878.

Sexton, E., Harmon, R. Sanders, N. Shah, M. Bryson, C. Brown, C. Cherry (2023) Shared e-scooter rider safety behaviour and injury outcomes: a review of studies in the United States. Transport Reviews, 1-23.

Azad, M., J. Rose, J.H. MacArthur, C.R. Cherry (2023) E-trikes for urban delivery: An empirical mixed-fleet simulation approach to assess city logistics sustainability. Sustainable Cities and Society. 96, 204641.

Shah, N.R., J. Guo, L.D. Han, C.R. Cherry (2023) Why do people take e-scooter trips? Insights on temporal and spatial usage patterns of detailed trip data. Transportation Research Part A. 173. 103705.

Harmon, K. J., Naumann, R. B., Cherry, C., Podsiad, K., Kumfer, W., LaJeunesse, S., Matherly, M., & Sandt, L. (2023). Applying the AcciMap approach to a fatal e-scooter crash: A Safe System approach to analyzing micromobility.

Sandt, L., Gelinne, D., West, A., Harmon, K. J., Blank, K., Bryson, M., Combs, T., Cherry, C. R., Sexton, E., & Shah, N. (2023). E-Scooter Safety: Issues and Solutions.

Board, T. R., National Academies of Sciences, E., & Medicine. (2023). E-Scooter Safety Toolbox. The National Academies Press.

Kim, M., Puczkowskyj, N., MacArthur, J., & Dill, J. (2023). Perspectives on e-scooters use: A multi-year cross-sectional approach to understanding e-scooter travel behavior in Portland, Oregon. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 178, 103866.

Šucha, M., Drimlová, E., Rečka, K., Haworth, N., Karlsen, K., Fyhri, A., Wallgren, P., Silverans, P., & Slootmans, F. (2023). E-scooter riders and pedestrians: Attitudes and interactions in five countries. Heliyon, 9(4), e15449.

Schramm, Amy & Haworth, Narelle (2023) Self-reported e-scooter rider and non-rider near-misses and crashes. In Bates, Lyndel & Johnson, Marilyn (Eds.) Proceedings of the 2023 Australasian Road Safety Conference (ARSC). Australasian College of Road Safety (ACRS), Australia, pp. 434-435.

Haworth, N., & Schramm, A. (2023). Factors associated with helmet use by e-scooter riders. Australasian Road Safety Conference.


Shah, N., C. Cherry (2022) The Chance of Getting Struck by a Car on an e-Scooter is Twice as High at Night. Findings, 36195.

Kittelson & Associates & Forth (2022) Electric Micromobility in Oregon A TEINA Supplemental Report January 2023. Oregon Department of Transportation.

Bennett, C., J. MacArthur, C. Cherry, & L. Jones (2022). Using E-Bike Purchase Incentive Programs to Expand the Market – North American Trends and Recommended Practices. White Paper. Portland, OR: Transportation Research and Education Center (TREC).

Hemphill, R., MacArthur, J., Longenecker, P., Desai, G., Nie, L., Ibarra, A., & Dill, J. (2022). Congested sidewalks: The effects of the built environment on e-scooter parking compliance. Journal of Transport and Land Use, 15(1), 481–495.


Ziedan, A., Shah, N. R., Wen, Y., Brakewood, C., Cherry, C. R., & Cole, J. (2021). Complement or Compete? The Effects of Shared Electric Scooters on Bus Ridership. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 101, 103098.

Yang, H., Huo, J., Bao, Y., Li, X., Yang, L., & Cherry, C. R. (2021). Impact of E-Scooter Sharing on Bike Sharing in Chicago. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 154, 23-36.

Shah, N. R., Aryal, S., Wen, Y., & Cherry, C. R. (2021). Comparison of Motor Vehicle-Involved E-Scooter and Bicycle Crashes Using Standardized Crash Typology. Journal of safety research.

Dill, J., & McNeil, N. (2021). Are shared vehicles shared by all? A review of equity and vehicle sharing. Journal of Planning Literature, 36(1), 5-30.

McQueen, M., Abou-Zeid, G., MacArthur, J., & Clifton, K. (2021). Transportation Transformation: Is Micromobility Making a Macro Impact on Sustainability? Journal of Planning Literature, 36(1), 46-61.

Haworth, N., Schramm, A., & Twisk, D. (2021). Comparing the Risky Behaviours of Shared and Private E-Scooter and Bicycle Riders in Downtown Brisbane, Australia. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 152, 105981.

Haworth, N., Schramm, A., & Twisk, D. (2021). Changes in Shared and Private E-Scooter Use in Brisbane, Australia and Their Safety Implications. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 163, 106451.

Almannaa, M. H., Alsahhaf, F. A., Ashqar, H. I., Elhenawy, M., Masoud, M., & Rakotonirainy, A. (2021). Perception Analysis of E-Scooter Riders and Non-Riders in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Survey Outputs. Sustainability, 13(2), 863.

Almannaa, M. H., Ashqar, H. I., Elhenawy, M., Masoud, M., Rakotonirainy, A., & Rakha, H. (2021). A Comparative Analysis of E-Scooter and E-Bike Usage Patterns: Findings From the City of Austin, TX. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 15(7), 571-579.

Elhenawy, M., Komol, M. R., Masoud, M., Liu, S. Q., Ashqar, H. I., Almannaa, M. H., … Rakotonirainy, A. (2021). A Novel Crowdsourcing Model for Micro-Mobility Ride-Sharing Systems. Sensors, 21(14), 4636. 

Vlakveld, W., Mons, C., Kamphuis, K., Stelling, A., & Twisk, D. (2021). Traffic Conflicts Involving Speed-Pedelecs (Fast Electric Bicycles): A Naturalistic Riding Study. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 158, 106201.

Puczkowskyj, N., Kim, M., MacArthur, J., & Dill, J. (2021). The perspectives on e-scooters use: A longitudinal approach to understanding e-scooter travel behavior in Portland, Oregon.


McQueen, M., MacArthur, J., & Cherry, C. (2020). The E-Bike Potential: Estimating Regional E-Bike Impacts on Greenhouse Gas Emissions. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 87, 102482.

MacArthur, J., McNeil, N., Cummings, A., & Broach, J. (2020). Adaptive Bike Share: Expanding Bike Share to People with Disabilities and Older Adults. Transportation research record, 2674(8), 556-565.


Ling, Z., Cherry, C. R., & Yang, H. (2019). Emerging Mini Electric Cars in China: User Experience and Policy Implications. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 69, 293-304.

Haworth, N. L., & Schramm, A. (2019). Illegal and Risky Riding of Electric Scooters in Brisbane. Medical Journal of Australia, 211(9), 412-413.

Masoud, M., Elhenawy, M., Almannaa, M. H., Liu, S. Q., Glaser, S., & Rakotonirainy, A. (2019). Heuristic Approaches To Solve E-Scooter Assignment Problem. IEEE Access, 7, 175093-175105.

Masoud, M., Elhenawy, M., Almannaa, M. H., Liu, S. Q., Glaser, S., & Rakotonirainy, A. (2019). Optimal Assignment of E-Scooter to Chargers. 2019 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference (ITSC),(pp. 4204-4209). IEEE


Yoon, T., & Cherry, C. R. (2018). Migrating Towards Using Electric Vehicles in Campus-Proposed Methods for Fleet Optimization. Sustainability, 10(2), 285.

Yang, H., Liu, X., Su, F., Cherry, C., Liu, Y., & Li, Y. (2018). Predicting E-Bike Users’ Intention to Run the Red Light: An Application and Extension of the Theory of Planned Behavior. Transportation research part F: traffic psychology and behaviour, 58, 282-291.

Dhakal, N., Cherry, C. R., Ling, Z., & Azad, M. (2018). Using CyclePhilly Data to Assess Wrong-Way Riding of Cyclists in Philadelphia. Journal of safety research, 67, 145-153.

Yan, X., He, J., King, M., Hang, W., & Zhou, B. (2018, 2018/07/01). Electric Bicycle Cost Calculation Models and Analysis Based on The Social Perspective in China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25(20), 20193-20205.


Ling, Z., Cherry, C. R., MacArthur, J. H., & Weinert, J. X. (2017). Differences of Cycling Experiences and Perceptions between E-Bike and Bicycle Users in the United States. Sustainability9(9), 1662.

Langford, B. C., Cherry, C. R., Bassett Jr, D. R., Fitzhugh, E. C., & Dhakal, N. (2017). Comparing physical activity of pedal-assist electric bikes with walking and conventional bicycles. Journal of Transport & Health6, 463-473.


Campbell, A., C. Cherry, M. Ryerson, L. Jones, X. Yang (2016). Factors influencing the choice of shared bicycles and shared electric bikes in Beijing.Transportation Research Part C. 64. Pg 399-414. 10.1016/j.trc.2016.03.004

Cherry, C. R., Yang, H., Jones, L. R., & He, M. (2016). Dynamics of electric bike ownership and use in Kunming, China. Transport Policy45, 127-135.

Fishman, E., & Cherry, C. (2016). E-bikes in the Mainstream: Reviewing a Decade of Research.Transport Reviews36(1), 72-91.

Ji, S., C. Cherry, W. Zhou, R. Sawhney, Y. Wu, S, Cai, S. Wang, J. Marshall (2015) Environmental Justice Aspects of Exposure to PM2.5 Emissions from Electric Vehicle Use in China. Environmental Science and Technology (in press). 10.1021/acs.est.5b04927


Cherry, C., H. Yang, L. Jones, M. He (2015) Dynamics of Electric Bike Ownership and Use in Kunming China. Transport Policy. doi: 10.1016/j.tranpol.2015.09.007.

Ling Z. C. Cherry. H. Yang, L. Jones (2015) From e-bike to car: A study on factors influencing motorization of e-bike users across China. Transportation Research Part D. doi: 10.1016/j.trd.2015.09.012 

Langford, B.C., C. Cherry, E. Fitzhugh (2015) Energy demand of pedestrians and riders of electric-assist bicycles and traditional bicycles. Moving Active Transportation to Higher Ground. Washington D.C.

Fishman, E., C. Cherry (2015) E-bikes in the mainstream: Reviewing a decade of research. Transport Reviews doi: 10.1080/01441647.2015.1069907

Langford, B.C., Chen, J. C. Cherry (2015) Risky riding: naturalistic methods comparing safety behavior from conventional bicycle riders and electric bike riders. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 82, 220-226.

Johnson, M., & Rose, G. (2015). Extending life on the bike: Electric bike use by older Australians. Journal of Transport & Health.


Ji, S., C. Cherry, L. Han, D. Jordan (2014)  Electric Bike Sharing: Simulation of User Demand and System Availability. Journal of Cleaner Production. 85. Pg. 250-257. 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.09.024 

MacArthur, J., Dill, J., & Person, M. (2014). E-Bikes in the North America: Results from an online survey. In Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual Meeting (No. 14-4885).


Jones, L., C. Cherry, T. Vu, N. Quang (2013) Estimating the Effect of Incentives on the Adoption of Electric Motorcycle: A Stated Choice Experiment in Vietnam. Transportation Research Part A. 57. Pg. 1-11. 

Langford, B.C., C. Cherry, T. Yoon, S. Worley, D. Smith (2013) North America’s first electric bicycle share: A year of experience. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board. 2387. Pg 120-128. 10.3141/2387-14.


Ji, S.G., C. Cherry, et al. (2012) Electric Vehicle Emissions and Public Health Impacts in China.Environmental Science and Technology 46(4) pg 2018-2024.

Rose, G., C. Cherry (2012)Regulating Emerging Light Electric Vehicles to Enhance Urban Transportation System Sustainability. TR News Magazine. 280 pg. 33.

Dill, J., & Rose, G. (2012). Electric bikes and transportation policy: Insights from early adopters. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, (2314), 1-6.

Rose, G. (2012). E-bikes and urban transportation: emerging issues and unresolved questions. Transportation, 39(1), 81-96.


Rose, G., & Dill, J. (2011). Reactions and Concerns with E-Bikes in the United States: Insight from an Exploratory, Blogological Study. InTransportation Research Board 90th Annual Meeting (No. 11-3212).​

Cherry, C., S. Worley, D. Jordan (2011)Electric Bike Sharing—System Requirements and Operational Concepts.The 90th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. Washington D.C. January 23-27, 2011.

Frymier, P., Cherry, C., Counce, R., Irick, D., & Tolbert, L. (2011). “H2 v. BE”: A Case Study of the Reliability, Cost, and Environmental Sustainability of Hydrogen Fuel Cell Hybrids vs. Battery Electrics for Near Urban Personal Transportation


Cherry, C. (2010) Electric Two-wheelers in China: Progress, Promise and Potential. Access. 37. pg 17-24.

Cherry, C., H. Min (2010) Alternative Methods of Measuring Operating Speed of Electric and Traditional Bikes in China-Implications for Travel Demand Models.Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies. 8. pg 1424-1436.

Cherry, C., S. Worley, D. Jordan (2010)Sharing Electric Bikes-Proof of Concept on UT-Knoxville Campus.Pro Walk Pro Bike Conference, Chattanooga, TN. Sept 14-16, 2010. 

Cherry, C., L. Jones (2010) Electric Two-wheelers in India and Vietnam-Market Analysis and Environmental Impacts. Asian Development Bank Report. RPT091118.


Shah, J., N.V. Ayer, C. Cherry (2009) Two and Three Wheelers in Sustainable Transport: A Sourcebook for Policy-makers in Developing Cities. Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ)-German Technological Cooperation. Module 4c.

Cherry, C., J.X. Weinert, X.M. Yang (2009) Electric Bikes in the People’s Republic of China-Impact on the Environment and Prospects for Future Growth. Asian Development Bank Report. RPT090040.

Cherry, C., J. Weinert, X.M. Yang (2009) Comparative Environmental Impacts of Electric Bikes in China.Transportation Research Part D. 14(5) pg 281-290.

Jones, L., C. Cherry (2009) Assessing the Demand For E-Scooters in Hanoi, Vietnam: Can Technological Improvements and Sales Tax Incentives Stimulate Adoption? International Transport Economics Conference. Minneapolis MN. June 15-16, 2009. 


Cherry, C. (2008) Can electric bikes provide sustainable transportation solutions to Chinese cities? An investigation of impacts on the transportation system. Symposium on Transportation and Development Innovative Best Practices. ASCE TD&I. Beijing, China. April 24-26, 2008.


Weinert, J.X., C.T. Ma, X.M. Yang, C. Cherry (2007) The Transition to Electric Bikes in China: Effect on Travel Behavior, Mode Shift, and User Safety Perceptions in a Medium-Sized City. Transportation Research Record. Journal of the Transportation Research Board 2038 pg 62-68.

Cherry, C., R. Cervero (2007) Use Characteristics and Mode Choice Behavior of Electric Bike Users in China. Transport Policy. 14(3) pg 247-257.

Weinert, J., C.T. Ma, C. Cherry (2007) The Transition to Electric Bikes in China: History And Key Reasons For Rapid Growth. Transportation. 34(3) pg 301-318.